Ability to Pay (ATP) Index Product Sheet

ATP Index can be used alone or incorporated into models that incorporate consumer financial variables. ATP Index can help marketers more efficiently assess customer portfolios, enhance targeting, better identify high-potential households for marketing efforts, tailor promotions, rank leads, and help inform account management. ATP Index is available for use in both offline and online applications.

Ability to Pay Digital

Ability To Pay™ is an estimate of a household’s financial capacity based on consumer spending capacity, total income (including income from wages and assets), and household demographics.

ACA Management Essentials Solution

An overview of our Affordable Care Act Management Essentials Solution for employers.

Affordable Care Act Management Brochure

Put ACA compliance on autopilot

Analytic Dataset

Analytic Dataset is a unique solution which provides insights into the credit health of US consumers through multiple credit cycles. This solution is created from a sample population across different geographical boundaries starting in July 2005 to present. It allows for the entrants of new consumers as others leave the active US consumer population due to death or credit usage.

AudienceIntel Product Sheet

AudienceIntel from IXI Services, a division of Equifax can help you: Improve campaign and website performance measurement with consumer financial capacity insights. Make instant, data-driven budget allocation decisions with campaign performance insights. Verify your actual audience to better understand what type of audience is viewing and responding to your online ads and website. Real-time, interactive dashboard allows easy “on-the-fly” report visualization, customization and exports.

AVM Insight Product Sheet

Manage your collateral risk with a market-leading AVM

Commercial Insight Delinquency Score Product Sheet

Product Sheet detailing Commercial Insight Delinquency Score

Credit Card Digital Targeting Segments

Credit Card segments, built on a foundation of anonymous, aggregated credit information from Equifax, offer a means of marketing to consumer segments likely to have specific credit card propensities. Available to IXI Network members only.

Credit Trends SmartView Application

Our Credit Trends SmartView application (app), available through the Equifax Ignite™ Marketplace, can provide the insight and clarity you need by offering clear, concise data visualizations that are accessible anytime via your computer, tablet or smartphone.

Digital Segments for Auto

Auto Credit* segments, built on a foundation of anonymous, aggregated credit information from Equifax, offer a means of marketing to consumer segments likely to have specific auto credit propensities.

Digital Segments for Millennials

These segments are driven by our consumer segmentation system, which takes into account both projected interest and capacity to buy. The methodology differentiates consumers by industry-leading measures of household economics to derive unique buying capacity insights. By combining insights into estimated household income, spending and credit with demographics, buying behaviors and product preferences, these segments offer powerful tools for delivering the right message to the right audience.

Digital Targeting Segments for Communications

Telecommunications, Cable, and Wireless segments are based on the Economic Cohorts® consumer segmentation system, and are built by combining insights about estimated household income, spending and credit with demographics, buying behaviors and product preferences.

Digital Targeting Segments for Retail

Retail segments are based on the Economic Cohorts consumer segmentation system, and are built by combining insights about estimated household income, spending and credit with demographics, buying behaviors and product preferences.

Digital Targeting Segments for Sports

Sport segments are based on the Economic Cohorts® consumer segmentation system, and are built by combining insights about estimated household income, spending and credit with likely demographics, buying behaviors and product preferences.

Digital Targeting Segments for Travel & Leisure

Travel, Entertainment, and Leisure segments are based on the Economic Cohorts® consumer segmentation system, and are built by combining insights about estimated household income, spending and credit with demographics, buying behaviors and product preferences.

Discretionary Spending Dollars HD

Discretionary Spending Dollars HD (DS$) is a continuous household-based dollar value estimate of discretionary spending uncapped up to $1.2M. For organization addressing internal responsible banking concerns, DS$ HD provides robust discretionary spending capacity estimates at the household level without using protected-class demographics. DS$ can be used alone or incorporated into models and can help identify consumers with the estimated spending levels to afford products and services.

Discretionary Spending Dollars Product Sheet

Discretionary Spending Dollars (DS$) from IXI Services is a continuous household-based dollar value estimate of discretionary spending uncapped up to $1.2M. DS$ represents disposable income minus non-discretionary expenses. DS$ can be used alone or incorporated into models where consumer spending is a factor. It is best used to identify consumers with the estimated spending levels to afford various products and services and can be used in both offline and online applications.

Discretionary Spending Index Product Sheet

Discretionary Spending Index (DSI) from IXI Services is a continuous household-based score of 1 to 1000 that ranks households by likely spending capacity and spending behaviors. It enables marketers to rank customers and prospects by estimated spending power.

Economic Cohorts Product Sheet

Economic Cohorts incorporates the vital visibility into household economics that has been missing from consumer segmentation products until now. Economic Cohorts segments customer and prospects based on households’ economic positions (estimated total income, ability to spend, ability to pay, and likely credit capacity), in combination with all the key demographic, lifecycle/lifestage, behavioral, lifestyle, and geographic attributes you expect from a leading consumer segmentation system.

Equifax and Retail Banking - Turning data into actionable insights

Our unique Decision360 approach is to integrate fragmented datasets and insights across channels, types, and platforms.

Equifax Ignite Direct

Equifax Ignite Direct combines data, technology and analytics in a research and development environment.

Equifax Ignite Marketplace

Equifax Ignite Marketplace, a collection of pre-built, configurable visualization applications, accelerates the sourcing and understanding of large amounts of industry-specific data to continuously optimize and inform intelligent business strategies.

FICO Score XD

By offering a deeper layer of relevant financial insight, FICO® Score XD can help you pinpoint and target creditworthy prospects out of a previously untapped audience so you can securely grow your consumer portfolio

I-9 Management Product Sheet

Take control of I-9 compliance with I-9 Management solutions from Equifax. We understand the challenge you face when managing I-9 compliance. Keeping control of your I-9s is no small task. Turnover, a dispersed workforce, remote employees, evolving legislation and changing regulations make it nearly impossible to stay 100% compliant when using a paper-based process. Equifax answers your needs with smart, convenient electronic solutions.

Income360 HD Product Sheet

Income360 Household Direct version is now available from IXI Services, a division of Equifax. Marketing campaigns can take advantage of household-level income estimates created without components that could create obstacles for internal compliance requirements.

Income360 Product Sheet

Income360 from IXI Services, a division of Equifax, is a continuous household-based dollar estimate of income uncapped up to $2.0 million based on both income from wages and income generated from investments. Income360 can be used alone or incorporated into models that include traditional income measures. It provides marketers and analysts with a more reliable estimate of income to improve performance for both direct marketing and online targeting campaigns.

InterConnect

InterConnect is a flexible and secure cloud-based platform that converts complex inputs into actionable insights. It delivers streamlined access to diverse data sources, better attribute creation and deployment, easier rules management, stronger analytics and model integration to help you make more consistent decisions and get to market faster.

Investment Propensity Digital Targeting Segments

Investment Propensity Digital Targeting Segments give firms the option of targeting households based on their likelihood to hold certain types of financial products. These segments are derived from a proprietary foundation of approximately $14 trillion in directly-measured, anonymous invested assets. The Direct version targets based on ZIP+4.

Lead Accelerator

Help verify and qualify leads that convert into sales quicker and more efficiently

MarketVision for Securities

MarketVisionTM for Securities enables securities firms to determine their market size and share, find high growth areas, and identify consumer demand for any investment product and product category—all based on direct-measuredTM consumer financial assets. Exclusively for IXI Network members.

Model Performance Monitoring Application

The Equifax Model Performance Monitoring application (app), available through the Equifax Ignite™ Marketplace, helps make it easier for you to manage ongoing regulatory requirements by providing data-driven illustrations around model performance that enable you to quickly visualize new and emerging model risk, so you can take faster action to update or revise those models.

Model Performance Validation Application

A prebuilt app within the Equifax Ignite™ Marketplace, the Model Performance Validation app enables you to immediately visualize and validate how your current risk models are performing against your portfolio, and then compare that to how alternative models might perform.

OptimaHub

Optimizing the Value of Each Step in the Customer Journey

Primary Impact - Make stronger promotions to the right prospects

Help grow your DDA portfolio and increase marketing ROI with a unique suite of models that enable greater precision when identifying household prospects best suited for your products.

Retail Banking Digital Targeting Segments

Retail Banking Propensity Targeting Segments give banks the option of targeting households based on their propensities to consume certain types of retail banking products and services. These segments are derived from a proprietary foundation of approximately $14 trillion in direct-measured, anonymous invested assets. Available to IXI Network members only.

Rules Editor

Rules Editor helps improve efficiencies and decreases costs by empowering business users integrated technology to easily create, test, and edit rule policies, without the reliance on I.T. resources.

State Onboarding Compliance Product Sheet

State new hire notifications can be overwhelming. Our State Onboarding Compliance solution can help.  We track legislation to help keep you on-top-of evolving state required new hire notifications and our technology makes the process straightforward to help you get the right form the to the right employee at the right time.

The Foundation of IXI Data

Unique IXI Data Foundation: Direct-Measured Assets

Our exclusive network of 95+ leading financial institutions, directly measures about $16 trillion in anonymous U.S. consumer assets & investments, representing over 47% of all U.S. consumer invested assets. Our patented process collects & classifies anonymous consumer asset data, combines it with proprietary measures of income, discretionary spending, and credit, providing a more complete picture of households’ financial and economic positions.

Transform Restaurant Marketing by Leveraging Transactional Data

Few restaurants leverage their wealth of transactional point-of-sale data to better understand their customers beyond their dining experience. With TokenIntel from Equifax, marketers can gain a broader understanding of their guests’ estimated financial profiles, attitudes, and demographics, and can transform their data for omni-channel marketing. In addition, by using insights on guests’ household locations, they can make more informed decisions about market potential for new site locations.

Unemployment Cost Management: We Get It. We Got It.

For employers, Unemployment Cost Management (UCM) can be really complicated. Equifax puts more than 65 years of experience, our CaseBuilder technology workflows, and UCM management and reporting best practices to work for more than 6,000 employers nationwide. 

WalletInsights Product Sheet

IXI’s interactive, web-based platform that empowers firms with customer and market intelligence based on IXI’s and Equifax’ proprietary financial, economic and credit insights. It offers a series of modules that firms can use to address their most pressing challenges, including helping firms to better understand their market position, grow customer relationships, plan outbound campaigns, and build customer loyalty

WeVerify I-9 Solution

We take the complexity out of E-Verify. Forget about trying to relearn the process every time you hire a new employee. As one of the largest E-Verify employer agents, our solution makes E-Verify simple and straightforward, so you can get back to what matters most – growing your business.

Affordable Care Act Subsidy Guide for Employers

Learn more about subsidies and their impact on both employees and employers. You'll find answers to the most common question like: What is a subsidy? Who should or should not get one? How and when I should appeal a subsidy? How does the subsidy process work?

Aligning Sales, Credit, and Collections for Maximum Efficiency and Speed to Revenue

From the moment of first contact through the entire relationship with your business customer, reducing friction and ensuring internal alignment invariably results in a more positive experience for you and your customer.

Comprehensive Data and Insights that Drive Smarter SMB Lending

Small businesses are the golden opportunity for commercial lenders. They represent almost all businesses in the American economy. To grow and thrive, small businesses need access to capital and resources to help sustain their operations and increase revenue.

Gauging U.S. Recession Risk

This white paper will walk through some of the concerns surrounding the timing of recessions, and what Equifax Credit Trends data might tell us about whether current conditions warrant worry.

Identifying High Spend Consumers with Equifax Dimensions

A data-driven comparison study that reveals how Equifax Dimensions can help businesses drive stronger, more profitable marketing and sales strategies by more accurately targeting high-spend consumers in the market.

Identifying the Emerging Affluent to Start Lifelong Relationships - A Financial Marketer's Guide to Mass Affluent Millennials

A deep look at the Millennial generation and how its financial profile differs from prior generations, how different groups of Millennials differ from one another, and some of the best tactics finanical marketers should employ for reaching this generation.

Increased Predictiveness of SMB Risk through Configured Data”

This white paper will explain how the Commercial Financial Network (CFN), an ever-expanding network of data powered by the revolutionary technology and analytics of Equifax IgniteTM, can solve challenges for lenders.

Last Mile Execution

Read this white paper to learn about technology solutions that deliver deeper customer insights into your decisioning systems

Mergers and Acquisitions - The Impact on Unemployment Tax Costs

Learn about the often overlooked unemployment tax issues that should be considered in the M&A transaction management process.

Top 10 ACA Compliance Challenges Employers Face in 2017

As the industry leader in ACA compliance, Equifax is helping clients manage eligibility, affordability, and IRS reporting for over 41 million employees. Download our resource to identify all 10 challenges and learn how your team can over come them. Throughout the process of onboarding hundreds of clients, we have noticed 10 common ACA compliance challenges.

ACE Loans Improves Lending Efficiency with Equifax BusinessConnect

With its strong reputation for supporting customers and the community, ACE Loans wanted an optimized process that enabled them to remain customer-focused and make smarter, faster point-of-sale decisions. The lender found what it needs in Equifax BusinessConnect.

A Visual Case Study: Jackson Healthcare and Improving ACA Compliance

Jackon Healthcare improves ACA compliance through a cutting-edge analytics platform from Equifax.

Captive Auto Lender Discovers Likely Financial Capacity of Consumers for New Electric Model

An auto manufacturer and its captive financing arm needed to provide insight to dealers on the target audience of a new model to ensure effective sales, particularly since the target audience was significantly different from the typical buyer of the brand.

Deeper Customer Insight

Top 30 bank improves customer insight and service with faster access to the latest data

Determining the Opportunity and Creating Client Treatment Groups - Best Practices for Banks

Banks need to be able to identify their ideal target audience for direct mail campaigns, yet they ousually only have a view of what their clients hold with them resulting in decreased efficiency and missed opportunities. Banks can utilize WealthComplete total assets estimates to identify, prioritize, and target high opportunity customers for cross-sell and up-sell campaigns.

Equifax Dimensions Delivers Predictive Risk Insight to Help Proactively Protect Your Business

A national financial services company wanted to enhance their risk models to improve their ability to identify consumers who are more likely to default. They needed a solution to help better identify consumers that pose a possible default risk.

Equifax Dimensions helps companies target the best consumers that will actively use their revolving cards

A credit card provider needed to better identify consumers who would be active on a revolving account in the next 12 months to improve targeting precision and appropriate marketing spend.

Equifax Dimensions Helps Increase Marketing Profitability and Improve Targeting Precision

A national credit card provider wanted to increase acquisition profitability by improving the way they targeted active customers. They needed a solution to better target customers more likely to take positive action while delivering a better marketing ROI.

Equifax Dimensions Helps Increase Revenue by Supporting More Precisely Targeted Balance Transfer Offers

A national credit card company wanted to increase revenue by targeting consumers who are more likely to transfer a balance greater than $500 over a 12-month timeframe. They needed a solution that could help precisely target the best candidates for balance transfer offer.

Equifax Dimensions helps more precisely target consumers most likely to open a first mortgage

A national lender wanted to hone the focus of their marketing spend and better identify consumers likely to open a first mortgage in the next 12 months.

Equifax Dimensions Helps Target High-Value Customers to Increase Revenue and Improve Marketing Success

A national bank wanted to build more market share and also proactively target consumers more likely to be high spenders in the next 12 months. They needed a solution to more accurately predict propensity to spend while creating profitable returns on marketing investment.

Hard Rock Cafe - Automated Compliance, Real Engagement

Learn how Hard Rock has been able to improve employee engagement in benefits, reduce its risk and slash administrative tasks related to ACA compliance, while freeing up resources and helping control healthcare costs.

Hurricane Relief Tax Credit Case Study: Retailer Identifies More Than $1 Million in Tax Credits with Help from Equifax

A retailer worked with Equifax to leverage Gulf Opportunity (GO) Zone Employee Retention Credits as part of the relief efforts following Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. The geo-coding processes from Equifax pinpointed locations inside the disaster zones while the tax credit experts calculated the opportunity. Equifax can help with our no-hassle set-up to efficiently identify, calculate, and manage compliance with the 2017 disaster relief tax credits for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

Leading Bank Enhances Prescreen Efficiency for Card Acquisition Campaigns

Prescreen list development was taking longer than desired due to manual processes that could not efficiently handle the sophisticated prospect selection criteria. This hampered the number of prescreen campaigns, and the quantity of prospects identified for firm offers of credit. Segment Manager, an online segmentation management tool, was able to rapidly handle its complex prescreen list selection criteria.

Lennox Transforms Credit and Collections with Help of Dynamic Equifax Solution

Lennox needed a more consistent and connected process for reviewing and approving customers and recovering debt. The company achieved this and more with the help of a world-class credit management solution from Equifax.

Midwest Health Success Story

ACA Compliance on Autopilot

Opus Bank Teams With Equifax to Service Small Businesses

To launch its new Small Business banking division, Opus Bank wanted a commercial data provider with the same ‘relationship’ approach to business, as well as the strong mix of industry exclusive data and advanced technology that came with Equifax BusinessConnect

Reaching the Right Audience Online with Wealth-based Targeting

A leading financial services firm leveraged our wealth-based Digital Targeting Segments to improve its online targeting by serving ads to consumers that were likely to have the desired financial characteristics for its products and services, while maintaining consumer privacy.

ACA Compliance: Top 10 Things You Need to Know in 2016

During this webinar, we’ll draw upon our experience helping hundreds of employers manage ACA to share the top 10 things that you need to know to ensure success in 2016.

ACA Update for Employers: Employee Subsidies and IRS Fines

During this webinar, we'll provide an overview of the subsidy application and appeal processes and how this can translate into IRS fines down the road.

An Employer's Perspective on ACA Subsidy Appeals and Employee Communication

Jeff Taylor of Equifax and Rachel Stevens of Staffmark walk through the “nuts and bolts” of the subsidy process, explain options available to employers when receiving Marketplace notices, and share best practices on handling subsidy appeals. Stevens also shares how she is successfully managing the subsidy process and handling delicate communication with employees whose subsidies are appealed.

An FCRA Refresher for Compliant Cross Selling: Ensuring Permissible Purpose

Tammy Stacy, Deputy Chief Compliance Officer for Equifax, provides insight into the trends observed in CFPB-regulated financial institutions, recommendations around FCRA compliance, and the differences between cross-selling and prescreening.

Art of Engagement Using the Science of Numbers - Best Practices in Customer Engagement

Watch this on-demand webinar to learn best practices for Communications Service Provider marketers, including Best Practices in Customer Lifetime Value. Communications marketers can better leverage their wealth of in-house customer data by enhancing their Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) modeling for use in customer engagement marketing activities. Equifax can help clients take advantage of their customer data, enhanced with economic data, to create more comprehensive Customer Lifetime Value calculations and help augment their marketing program strategies.

Commercial Credit Trends Outlook Webinar from Equifax – Q1 2018

Equifax chief economist Amy Crews Cutts shares the latest commercial credit trends and outlines what changes she sees in store for the U.S. and economy and where she believes the economy is headed. She discusses recent commercial economic data, as well as new issues that are emerging on the economic landscape including changing interest rates, the Trump administration’s priorities and global politics.

Decoding ACA - IRS Reporting and Subsidy Management

Decode IRS reporting and subsidy management for the ACA. See examples of complex employment scenarios and how they play out in terms of 1095-C reporting. Learn best practices for data collection and management, form 1095-C distribution, and subsidy appeals management.

Ingredients for Restaurant Success - Better Leverage Data to Help Attract and Engage Valued Guests

Restaurant marketers attended “Ingredients for Restaurant Success” to better understand ways to leverage the wealth of their in-house POS data for marketing activities and enterprise-wide decisions. Equifax can help clients take advantage of their internal data, enhanced with economic data, to create a more comprehensive view of guests and inform better decision-making.

Military Lending Act -- Are you Ready

Speakers shared valuable insights about the Military Lending Act (MLA) background and the new requirements associated with the MLA Final Rule starting October 3, 2016.

Neural Networks for Credit Decisioning

Cracking Open The Black Box

Piecing Together ACA: Reporting, Subsidy Appeals, and Employee Education

With a better understanding of 1095-C forms and a thoughtful employee education plan, you can set your organization up for success in piecing together the ACA puzzle. Join the expert ACA team from Equifax to discuss the impact of the new regulations and Administration on ACA, tips for preventing form 1095 errors and minimizing corrections, ideas for developing a plan to get ahead of employees’ 1095-C confusion, and strategies for handling sensitive subsidy appeal discussions with employees.

PODCAST: Customer Lifetime Value Best Practices for Communications Marketers

This podcast discusses CLV and Customer Equity. Better leverage in-house customer data by enhancing Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) modeling for use in customer engagement marketing activities.

Equifax can help clients take advantage of their internal data, enhanced with economic data, to create a more comprehensive view of guests and inform better decision-making.

Q1 2017 U.S. Economic and Credit Trends Outlook from Equifax

Make more informed decisions with economic and consumer credit insights from Equifax

Q2 2017 U.S. Economic and Credit Trends Outlook by Equifax

Chief Economist Amy Crews Cutts delivers insights that can help drive strategic growth at your organization. During this webinar, Amy will discuss:
- U.S. Economic Overview
- U.S. Consumer Credit Trends
- Special Report: Recession Outlook
Whether you lead Credit Risk, Corporate Risk, Strategy & Planning, or Marketing, you will gain valuable economic and consumer credit insights to help drive strategic growth.

Q3 2017 U.S. Economic and Credit Trends Webinar

Make more informed decisions with economic and consumer credit insights from Equifax

Reaching for Retail Nirvana - Better Leverage Data To Identify And Engage Your Valuable Shoppers

This webinar discusses ways that retailer marketers can work towards a “retail nirvana” – defined here as improved customer engagement through a 360-degree view of their customers and prospects. Many Equifax clients have used syndicated segmentation frameworks to leverage in-house and third-party data and help implement best practices, overcome departmental silos and better utilize their internal data.

The Affordable Care Act - Preparing for 2015

While many employers believe they do not have to worry about IRS reporting for the ACA until 2016, the reality is that they must begin preparing in January of 2015 in order to file in 2016. Join us as we break down IRS reporting for the ACA.

Walking the Tightrope: Striking the Balance Between Fraud Prevention and User Experience

Application fraud and account takeover are rapidly rising in the U.S. and many FIs financial institutions are scrambling to deploy mitigating controls. At the same time, the rising bar of customer expectations is pressuring FIs them to remove friction and increase functionality to create seamless digital experiences for their customers.

ACA 1095 Toolkit for Employers

Get our toolkit of valuable resources to help educate employees on ACA Form 1095, including a communication plan, email templates, a poster, FAQs, and more.

A Guide To Better Digital Advertising Through Data

Tactics, tools and real-life brand case studies that show advertisers how they can use additional data sources to help improve their online advertising campaigns.

Aligning Sales, Credit, and Collections for Maximum Efficiency and Speed to Revenue

BusinessConnect™ Offers a Unified Customer Lifecycle Management Solution for Organizations

Equifax and Communication Services Providers Brochure

Decision 360 Brochure for Communications

Forget Everything You Thought You Knew About Big Data and Analytics: Part One

Think differently. Be different. There is a paradigm shift happening: the market needs more tailored data solutions that don’t take months to deliver. You need a solution that can meet market demand through a frictionless process that reduces building, testing and deployment from months to days. Different is the new paradigm. Read Part 1 of the eBook.

Going "New School" with Grad Data, an ebook from Equifax

Ready to ditch your "old school" methods for graduate outcome data collection? This ebook from Equifax outlines why higher ed's commonly-used outcome data collection methods (surveys, outbound calls, social media searches, scraped data purchases) aren't providing the full picture required to successfully guide an institution's strategic initiatives. Included is an introduction to "new school" options that provide accurate, timely, and longitudinal metrics that help unlock new insights in departments campus-wide.

Straight Talk from the Next Generation of Credit Card Customers

The eBook, Straight Talk from the Next Generation of Credit Card Customers, discusses what Millennials want, don’t want and the number one reason they’ll pick your card over others.

Tax Intelligence - California Enterprise Zone Closings

The California Zone Program was repealed as of January 1, 2014, however many zone offices have chosen to close their doors before December 2014 deadline.

The Pursuit of Profitability

The Pursuit of Profitability takes a look at the Great Recession, discusses the path of economic recovery, and presents changing financial behaviors that emerged post-recession. The eBook shares practices to help win Affluent and Mass Affluent households.

Top Ten ACA Compliance Challenges Employers Face in 2017: Visual Guide

As the industry leader in ACA compliance, Equifax is helping clients manage eligibility, affordability, and IRS reporting for over 41 million employees. Download our visual guide to identify the top ten challenges employers face in 2017 and learn how your team can be prepared.

Using Trended Data to Better Understand Customer Behaviors

The ability to effectively target offers and foster loyalty is contingent on successfully predicting consumer behavior and spend. Trended, historical, longitudinal or time-series data is an invaluable tool for gaining practical perspective into consumer behavior.